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From past decades JM’s Clinical Chemistry laboratories have provided a wide breadth and depth of tests from routine to esoteric. Our automated in-house developed technology performed high accuracy clinical chemistry based diagnostic results, which is a state of art integral part of JM’s laboratories. JM’s automated systems allow for rapid turnaround times, optimal efficiency, and the best quality the industry has to offer.
Clinical chemistry uses chemical processes to measure levels of chemical components in body fluids. The most common specimens tested in clinical chemistry are blood and urine. Many different tests exist to test for almost any type of chemical component in blood or urine. Components may include blood glucose, electrolytes, enzymes, hormones, lipids (fats), other metabolic substances, and proteins.
The following is a description of some of the most common JM’s clinical chemistry tests (used on blood and urine specimens) including some of the uses and indications:
Blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels indicate how the body handles glucose. Measuring glucose levels after fasting (when the patient has not eaten anything for 8 hours) can help diagnose diabetes or hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
Electrolytes include sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Measuring electrolytes can specifically indicate certain metabolic and kidney disorders. Enzymes are released into the blood by organs that are damaged or diseased. The type of enzyme released can indicate which organ is affected:
|Creatine kinase||Can signal damage to heart muscle or skeletal muscle CK-MB, an isoenzyme of CK, is used to distinguish heart muscle damage|
|Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT)||Can signal liver disorders|
|Amylase and lipase||Can signal inflammation or the possibility of cancer of the pancreas|
Hormones are secreted by the various endocrine glands to regulate the processes of the body. Raised or lowered levels of certain hormones can indicate over- or under-activity of those glands:
|Thyroxine (T4), TSH||thyroid gland|
|FSH, ACTH, growth hormones||pituitary gland|
Lipids are fatty substances such as triglycerides (body fat), phospholipids (part of cell membranes), and sterols (such as cholesterol). Lipids can help signal coronary heart disease and liver disease:
|Total cholesterol||High total cholesterol is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD)|
|High-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good" cholesterol) Low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad" cholesterol)High LDL cholesterol is also a risk factor for CVD||High HDL cholesterol is a protective factor against CVD|
|Triglycerides||High triglycerides are another independent risk factor for CVD|
Other metabolic substances can be measured to evaluate organ function:
|Metabolic product||Organ affected|
|BUN (blood urea nitrogen) Creatinine||Kidney function|
|Uric acid||Can signal gout, kidney disease, and other tissue damage|
Proteins can indicate metabolic and nutritional disorders, as well as certain cancers:
|Total protein and albumin||Can signal liver or kidney disease, or malnutrition|
|Globulins and the A/G ratio (albumin to globulin)||Can signal infection, autoimmune disease, inflammation, and certain blood cancers|
Often, abnormal blood and urine tests are repeated to make sure there is not a sample error or lab error. Abnormal tests we often followed up by other more specialized tests.
Board-certified medical directors are available to answer client questions and consult on laboratory stewardship efforts. Please contact JM’s Client Services at TEL: (+86) 010-51557697 Fax: (+86) 010-51557697-8099 E-Mail: email@example.com for test inquiries or to arrange a consultation.